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January 22, 2003     Sidney Herald
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January 22, 2003

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22, 20o3 Serving the Mon area since 1908 I EXPLORING THE f REALMS OF HISTORY, SCIENCE, NATUR'E & TECHNOLOGY it happened rockets 232 -- Rockets are Kai-fung-fu. Gunpowder are used What is a rocket? Outside Air moves Newton's laws of motion A rocket is a device that uses the force of eject- ed matter to pro- pel (drive forward) an object. When a balloon is filled with air and released, the Balloon traders, moves air pressure In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton published the first volume of his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, a work generally referred to as the Principia. In this, Newton describes three laws that govern the motion of all objects on Earth or in space: 1. Objects at rest will stay at rest and objects in motion in a straight line will stay in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an outside force. 2, Force is equal to mass times acceleration. balloon is thrust 3. For every action them is an equal and opposite reaction. Rockets are used by both sides during forward as the air is ejected. This action (air Civil War. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky USSR) suggests leaving the balloon) and the reaction Relating the laws to rocketry (the balloon moving) demon- ets can reach airless space with liquid fuel• strates Newton's law that for An outside force must be exerted for a rocket to lift off Robert H. every action there is an equal from a launchpad or for a craft to change directions (first | launches the and opposite reaction. / I .= law). The amount of thrust (force) produced by a rocket :l-fuel rocket. Rockets work in the same [ J engine will be.determined by the rate at which the mass t44 -- German The V2 rocket was the way as a released balloon. I of the rocket fuel burns and the speed of the gas escap- | develop the world's first ballistic missile. Rocket engines are used to / ing the rocket (second law). The reaction, or motion, of lid missile and use it carry scientific instruments the rocket is equal to and in the opposite direction of the in World War II. into the atmosphere or into action, or thrust, from the engine (third law). I USSR launches outer space for research. They satet te ./ \ are also used as weapons to Sir Isaac Propellants ' /f/ \ ' carry explosives to a target, and Newton National Sputnik I ': ,:% they can launch satellites or A propellent is not just fuel, but a combination of fuel and Space . spaceships• Fireworks are also a kind of rocket. (such as gasoline, kerosene or liquid hydrogen), and For their size, rockets produce more power than an oxidizer (a substance that Solid tion (NASA) is any other engine, supplieSmust be present oxygen).for AntheOXidizer fuel to DmD-ellant rocket MaiOl Yuri Gagadn (USSR) is the How it works bum in outer space. Jet engines Pavload I in sp Ice on the Soviet A-1 rock- i use the oxygen in the (c-a'ra-o-) nth lal er, Alan Shepard becomesModern rockets burn fuel to produce energy atmosphere, but rocket engines" " • Arned, :an in space, for liftoff. They are sometimes referred to as carry their own oxygen. Igniter chemical rockets because buming is a chemical John Glenn ; the first U.S ...... i reaction. Chemical rockets burn huge amounts Solid propellants are used Engine (USSR) woman in space. Explorer I Leonov (USSR) space walk. APollo 11 lands on the md Nell Armstrong human to walk on China launches its first rocket. Skylab of fuel very fast and at very high temperatures. Rockets burn fuel in a combustion (burning) chamber, which results in rapidly expanding gas. This pressurized gas is released through a nozzle at the back of the chamber. Engineers discovered that the smaller the throat of the exit, the more the gases accelerate, providing extra thrust. A cone-shaped nozzle further restncts the gases and accelerates them even more. The exhaust of gas through the nozzle is the action described in Newton's law. The reaction is the thrust (pushing fume) of the rocket away ;pace lab from the flow of exhaust gas. : dam; in from orbit in 1979) Early rocketry I Soviet spacecraft This early Greek engine (A.D. 62), called it and the astronauts an aeolipile by its inventor Hero of Alexandria, was one of the first devices to successfully use the ...... Europe's first satellite principles of rocket :es ;ful t launci flight. Hero's the first reusable engine created Space shuffle steam that, when through L- launches its first ..... % either side, croat- LThe space shuttle" " ..... ed thrust, causing ˘ explodes shortly after the sphere to rotate• Ing 7 crewmembers. ~-............ The Hubble Space Rubble A weighty issue Rockets large enough to carry vehicles into space have senous weight problems. One way scientists have solved the issue of weight is by making rockets that have several stages. As each stage exhausts its fuel supply, the empty casing fails away. The remaining load is lighter and can pick up speed. When a rocket leaves the atmosphere and enters space, it no longer encoun- ters air fnction (drag) and therefore requires less thrust to move. According to legend, around 1500 a Chinese named Wan Hu tried to fly by lighting 47 rock- ets tied to a large wicker chair. Not sur- prisingly, after the dust settled there was no sign of the chair -- or of Wan Hu. In 1919, Robert H. Goddard punished a pamphlet contain- ing several theories about rocketry. His experiments with solid- and liquid-propellant rockets between 1909 and 1945 led to the development of powerful boosters for inter- continental missiles and for spacecraft. Cntics scoffed at Goddard's ideas, but many of his conclusions were later Robert H. proved correct. Goddard (1882-1945) Father of modern t'ocketry in the simplest kind of rock- (body ets. A dry, plastic-like matenal tube) called the grain is made up of fuel and an oxidizer (gener- Core ally the fuel consists of hydro- gen compounds, the oxidizer of oxygen compounds). This type of propellant requires propellant ignition; a fuse and small. (grain) charge of gunpowder are one ignition method. Ignition may also be achieved by a chemical reaction -- a liquid chlodne compound sprayed onto the grain will ignite the propellant, , Combustion Solid propellants bum chamber faster than liquid propellants. Military Nozzle rockets generally use solid propellants. The apace shuttle uses both =mild and liquid propellants. Liquid propellant rocket Payload (cargo) Oxidizer tank Liquid fuel .--_- tank Pumps Liquid propellants bum a mixture of fuel and oxidizer in liquid form -- usually kerosene or hydrogen that has been cooled and tumed into liq- uid. Uquid propellants require a much more complicated engine than solid propellants. Separate fuel and oxidizer tanks are needed, along with a series of pumps, pipes and valves to mix the fuel and oxidizer into the combustion chamber. Most liquid propellants require an ignition system, but some, called hypergo , ignite when the fuel and oxidizer come into contact with each other. Uquid propellants tend to create than equal amounts of solid propellant bumed for the same length of time. This type of fuel can easily be fumed on or oft, which allows r superior thrust control. Liquid propellant rockets are used for most space launch vehicles. Combustion eft. Nozzle SOURCES: Wor/d Book • Encyc/oped/a, World Book Inc.; Space shuttle Arlane IV SoyuzA2 Gemnl- Mercury- Human Ency~pe~ AmerP_,ana, , Titan Atln 6ft. Exhaust Grolier Inc. ; Space Rocket, Tim Enterprise 1988 1995 192 ft. 162 ft. 1964 1962 1.8m Furniss; Rockets, Mary Virginia ;894~. 58.4m 49.5m 109 ft. 95 ft, Fox; ~ts and Spacecraft. 56m 33.2m 28.9m Robert Sheridan: NASA. Inc. LEARN ALL ABOUT VENICE IN THE NEXT INSTALLMENT OF WORLD OF WONDER Feature Syndicate, Inc. For a list of upcoming topics and teacher lesson guides, go to What can you afford? Community i • [involvement.! Local National newa. by People ana Businesses who care/ Sidney • 482-2616 Bob's Pickup & Delivery, Inc. Sidney • 433-1733 Brenner, Averett & Co., P.C. Certified Public Accountants 121 S. Central Ave,, Sidney • 433-5464 WARNINGt Home-built rockets may explode arid cause serious injury. People interested in rock should never attempt to build their own Even the simplest rocket engine is compklx and should not be attempted by amateurs, Paper rocket project You can make a paper rocket that can be laurched with the pressure created from an eflerveedng antadd tablet and water. This project shows how rocket Broil II an application of Newton's laws of motion. Materials needed: * paper, 35 mm film canister* • Cellophane tape • Sdmom • Effervescing antacid tablet • Paper towels • Wal • Eye protection • The film canister must have =m ~ Id, 11till I'I IUIIy translucent canisters ((~t~ I~ Ire o~ On qI I and will nnt work). A camca or film ~ ll~p me/I1~1 m they are planning to recyde. Step 1: Wrap a~ ~ tuba of paper ['~::':~ I Ut I,: UI around the film I H canister and tape I 1]t it. (The ,d end of l Y,I the canister goes I: hl I down.) cut out I and tape them to [. the rocket • Film ˘Inl Step 2: Roll a cone of paper and ,, _-.--- tape it to the top of the rocket (see A " tion. Turn the rocket upside down and remove the lid of the canister. Fill the canister 1/3 furl of water. Step 4: You need to work very quickly at this point. Drop I/2 an effervescent tablet into the canister and snap the lid on tight. Quickly put the rocket upright on your launching area and stand back. L What do you know? DOWN 1 This is the "reaction" of a rocket when oxhoult gases pass through nozzle 3 A combination of fuel and olddizor 4 r ary rockm um this type ae propellent 6 This space vehicle uses liquid and olid propel nts 7 This type of prope, ant can be turned on and otf and is usually used in space launch 5 Chamber where fuel and oxidizer are 8 For liftoff, a rockst's thrust must be its total _.__.__ 9 A rocket needs fuel and thla tf It going to tirol in outer space 10 Eady Grsek engine used Ifds to cmm k nJM e 406-433-2092 Sid 1-800.676-2467 • Fax 406-433-2095 Con's Weed Control Service Sidney- (406) 488-7422 donvo, n@midrivcr .com